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Karnataka State Syllabus Class 9 Sociology Chapter 4 Community
Class 9 Social Science Community Textual Questions and Answers
I. Fill in the blanks with suitable words.
Nomadism is called as a way of ________
The main pillar of Indian society is ___________ community.
The tribes of the North East Zone are ________
II. Answer the following questions :
What is a Tribe?
The word tribal refers to a group or community with similar ancestry, customs and traditions.
What is the village?
The area consisting of the families who mainly depend on agriculture and agriculture-based occupations for their livelihood is called a village.
Define the concept of a city.
A large and densely populated area is called a city. People from different regions, speaking different languages and belonging to different cultures live here.
Explain the characteristics of the tribal community.
Characteristics of Tribes are as follows :
- Simple and self-confident.
- Worship of Nature.
- Loyal to the community and importance to unity.
- Equality and independence to women.
- Endogamous marriages.
- Unique and different mother tongue.
- Living in a natural environment.
- An economic system based on hunting and gathering of minor forest produces and sporadic agriculture.
Explain the division of tribals in India according to the geographical locality.
The three important geographical zones where tribes live in India are :
- North and North-East Zone: The sub-tribes of Naga such as Konac, Regma, Sigma, Aho, Angama, Lohta, Pome, Changa and Kaboola and the sub-tribes of Kuki such as Lushami, Lakers, Chins, Khushi, Garo, Kachari, Lepcha, Butia, Rabha, Tharo, Kaso, Chini, etc., live in Himalayan mountain regions.
- Central Zone: This zone consists of West Bengal, Bihar, Orissa, South parts of Uttar Pradesh, northern parts of Maharashtra, Madhya Pradesh, North parts of Rajasthan states. The sub-tribes like Santana, Munda, Urania, Bhumija, Koya, Lodha, Sapporo, Javunga, Kunda, Korko, Gonda, Bhil, Urahara, Kola, Malera, Asura, Byga, Pradhan, Birazoma, Agaria, Hil, Mariya, Bison, etc., live in this zone.
- South Zone: Kerala, Tamil Nadu and Andhra Pradesh, Telangana and Karnataka are the states which come in this zone. The major sub-tribes live in this zone are Chanchu, Thoda, Badaga, Koota, Paniyan, Irula, Kuramana, Kurumba, Gonda, Rajagonda, Soliga, Kadukuruba, Jenukuruba, Koraga, Hasala, Yarava, Danagara Gowli, Kadugolla, Halakki, Okkaliga, etc.
Explain the types of rural communities.
Villages are classified as follows:
- Centralized Villages: The main characteristics of this type of village is houses are located in the farmland. The houses remain closer to each other. The size of the village
increases as the people in agriculture increase.
- Villages with independent households and farms: This type of village is found in the coastal region and in irrigated areas of Raichur district of Karnataka. Here a family of a farmer lives away from other farmer families. The house is surrounded by cattle shed, agricultural equipment, fodder for cattle, etc.
- Scattered group villages: This type of village are located in hilly areas and in uplands districts of Karnataka. In this type, a group of families lives away from another group of families. For example, a group of families may be located on a hill and another may below the hill. Such type of villages is called as scattered group villages.
- Village of line houses: In these villages families are located on both sides of the road. Here one house is attached to others. A wall divides one house from another. All the houses look like an extension of the same building.
- Circles Shaped villages: These villages are also called as round shaped villages. Here houses would present around a temple, Masjid, Church or tank in a round shape settlement.
- Square shaped villages: These villages are the same as line villages. Here the houses are placed in parallel and horizontal to each other.
- Converged road villages or market villages: Families which are based on non- agricultural occupations are found here. Houses are located in those areas where two or more roads converge at a point. Shops and hotels are attached to the houses. These villages are named as Junction, Kamara, Kodu, etc.
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