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Karnataka State Syllabus Class 9 History Chapter 9 Revolution and Unification of Nations
Class 9 Social Science Revolution and Unification of Nations Textual Questions and Answers
I. Fill in the blanks with suitable words.
The 13 colonies established by England on the Atlantic coast were called ___________
the “New English Colonies”.
The representatives of the 13 colonies met in 1774 at __________
Declaration of America’s independence was on ___________
4th July, 1776.
The writer of “Spirit of Laws” was
The party ‘Young Italy’ was formed by ____________
The philosophy of ‘blood and steel’ was advocated by __________
II. Answer the following questions :
Mention the reasons for American War of Independence.
The reasons for American War of Independence are:
- The rise of nationalism among the people of the colonies.
- The desire for independence among the colonies.
- The effects of the 7 years war.
- The naval regulations.
- Influence of writers like Thomas Paine, John Adams, Benjamin Franklin.
- The effect of Quebec regulations and the Townsend Taxes.
- The Boston Tea Party.
All these led to the revolution in America.
Explain the significance of the American War of Independence.
Along the Atlantic coast of North America 13 colonies were established by England. Among these colonies an intense desire rose nationalism. The British colonies acquired monopoly of sea trade. They imposed many taxes on the people of colonies. The Quebec Act of 1774 led to dissatisfaction among colonies. The Stamp Act was brought into force in 1765 A.D. As a result, it was possible to impose taxes on tea, paper, glass, etc. These taxes enraged the colonies. Naturally the Americans desired for independence.
The representatives of 13 colonies of North America met in Philadelphia in 1774 A.D. to discuss the prevailing situations. The Americans were great patriots and the lover of democracy. They were ready to sacrifice for their independence.
Under the leadership of George Washington,the Americans fought the British Army and won the battles of Saratoga, York town and others. In the end as per the Paris Agreement, Britain accepted that the 13 colonies were independent. Since the declaration of independence was made on 4th July, it became a day of great significance to the Americans.
The American War of Independence acted as an inspiration for the French Revolution. Many of the Spanish and Portuguese colonies of America got inspired to become free and hence revolted against their motherland. The new nation called the United States of America was born. This is the most important significance of the American War of Independence.
How were economic factors responsible for the French revolution?
Even at the end of the 18th century. France was economically backward. Though its neighboring country England became an Industrial Country. France remained as the .agricultural country. Feudalism still existed.
The clergy, the nobles led to luxurious life at the cost of ordinary people. The farmers and other skilled laborers could not pay taxes levied on them by the kings. The farmers revolted against the system.
Industries were under the control of trade unions. Even the industries were strong enough to compete with other countries like England. Totally there was economic instability in the country because of maladministration.
What was the role of Garibaldi in Italy’s unification?
Garibaldi was a soldier and fighter. He played an important role in the unification of Italy.
He joined the ‘Young Italy’ established by Mazzini. After that, he constituted an army called ‘Red Brigade’ or “Red Shirts”.
With the help of Sardinia, fought with Austria. In 1860, he fought against the twin states of Sicily using his Red Garibaldi Brigade. He conquered them. Thus he played his role in the unification of Italy.
Who was the architect of the unification of Germany? Write a note on him.
The architect of the unification of Germany was Ottowan Bismark.
He was the chief minister of the King of Prussia, William I. He had begun his career as a Government servant, a member of the assembly called “Diet” and as an ambassador in various nations and had gained a lot of popularity. He was aware of the German States Association under the leadership of Austria and knew about the activities and weaknesses of this organization. Having worked in Austria, France, and Russia as an ambassador, he had the knowledge of their strength and weakness. He knew that German unification was possible only by Prussia. To achieve this end he had two aims :
Firstly, to drive out Austria from the “German States’ Association”, secondly, instead of losing identity with Germany, convert Germany into Prussia. This meant including the culture and traditions and spread of administrative machinery and military power all over Germany. Bismark achieved the unification of Germany by his “Blood and Steel” philosophy. “Blood and Steel” philosophy means ‘War tactics’.
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