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Karnataka State Syllabus Class 9 History Chapter 7 Europe in the Middle Ages
Class 9 Social Science Europe in the Middle Ages Textual Questions and Answers
I. Fill in the blanks with suitable words.
The cultural bankruptcy of Europe is called ________
The owner of the land was called _____
The Lords or nobles.
The person who maintained the land was called_______
The weak person who was responsible for the maintenance of land was called ________
II. Answer the following :
What is feudal system ?
Feudal system is that in which an arrangement or an agreement between the powerful and weak. The person who owned the land was called the noble, whereas the person who maintained the land was called vassal. It was also an new political and economic system took birth in Western Europe.
List the advantages and disadvantages of the feudal system.
The list of advantages and disadvantages is as under:
- Simplicity was the most important characteristic of this system.
- Simple and tailor-made administrative system is the contribution of this system.
- Guarantee of human protection was evident in this system.
- The lords or the nobles were dependent on the vassals for military service. As a result, the ruling party could not become autocratic.
- The economic system also saw notable progressive changes.
- The savagery of the barbaric communities was controlled. Man became aware of his duties and fundamental rights.
- This system encouraged literature.
- The special contribution of this system was creation of rules and regulations.
The nobles got their training through these rules and regulations. This training enabled the nobles to protect women, the weak and the Christian religion.
- With the influence of this system, a class of aristocracy came into being.
- Arguments and disagreements began among the aristocrats, nobles and vassals. As a result of this crisis, the agreements and arrangements of the feudal system failed.
- The nobles started competing with the Lords or the kings.
- Many became traitors and posed a threat to their own regional unity.
- The judicial system also was full of weaknesses and there was no rule of law.
- The church and the state were at loggerheads with each other.
Explain the effects of feudalism.
- The Nobles became responsible for the protection of their vassals and serfs.
- The poor and the weaker sections of the society were often harassed by the nobles and vassals.
- The peasants and laborers were given lands sufficient for survival as long as they worked with the vassals. They were not getting any financial benefits for the labor provided by them.
- Vassals were responsible for providing military aid to the lords. Thus landlords and vassals became more powerful.
- Feudalism slowly nourished the emergence of cities that became the centers of trade and arts crafts.
- Prominent ruling classes emerged as the ruling class, feudal lords and vassals fought among themselves to gain power.
- The judicial system was greatly affected due to the lack of uniformity.
- Clashes between the Church and the state increased.
What were the reasons for the decline of feudalism?
During 15 th century, many incidents caused the fall of the feudal system. The reasons for the downfall of the feudal system are given as under.
- During 15 th century, the rise of powerful dynastic rule in England, France, and Spain led to the downfall of the feudal system.
- Development of regional languages, nationalism, lust for absolute power among the kings led to the decline of feudalism.
- The military power also caused the downfall of feudalism.
- Renaissance and reformation became the main reason for the weakening of the feudal system.
III. Write an essay on ‘Feudalism’.
Feudal system was a system of land ownership based on political and economical base. In medieval Europe, the status of a person was based on the extent of land owned by him. The income from the land was the sole means of earning. The king used to distribute lands to noblemen. Noblemen used to distribute those lands to farmers. In nutshell, the feudal system was designed to fulfill specific services.
Feudalism can be called as an agreement between powerful lords and weak farmer. The powerful men who owned the lands were called ‘Nobel’ and the people who took land from them are called ‘vassal’. The Nobel man has the duty of protecting the weak vassal, and the vassal in turn had to offer few services.
The feudalism system was based on mutual giving and taking. This system emerged in all classes, organizations, and associations during the medieval period. Unfortunately, the feature and structure of this system never got implemented
The land held by the vassals was considered a gift was given by the ruler. Feudalism consisted of two important traditions: the first one was ‘Investiture’. Under this tradition, the lord gave assurances of justice and protection to the vassal while the land. The second one was ‘Homage’ (handing down of power according to customs): under this tradition, the vassal promised loyalty and service to the feudal lord.
With the effect of Feudalism, there were visible changes in the economic system. The power of Barbarians was brought under control. Human beings realized their rights and duties under the system. Feudalism slowly nourished the emergence of cities.
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