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Karnataka State Syllabus Class 9 Economics Chapter 4 Labour and Employment
Class 9 Social Science Labour and Employment Textual Questions and Answers
I. Fill in the blanks with suitable words.
Labour is a __________ input in production.
Working age group refers to ___________ years.
15 to 60
The share of female workers in the total workforce of India is about ___________
As economic development takes place, the share of workers in _________ sector declines.
MGNREGA was passed in the year __________
II. Discuss in groups and answer the following :
What is the meaning of labour?
It is the capacity to exercise physical or mental effort for the purpose of producing goods or services by human beings. It in- eludes all manual and intellectual efforts made to earn a living.
What is the unorganized sector?
The unorganised sector includes those small and scattered units which are largely outside the control of the government.
Unemployment is a situation where able people who are capable of working both physically and mentally at the existing wage rate do not get job opportunities.
How is the unemployment rate measured?
The unemployment rate is a measure of the prevalence of unemployment. It is calculated as a percentage by dividing the number of unemployed individuals by all individuals who are able to work (labour force) in a country.
Explain the main causes of unemployment in India.
The major causes of unemployment in India are :
- Jobless growth: Indian economy is experiencing growth without expansion of employment opportunities. Development of information technologies like computer and internet are replacing human workforce. Underdevelopment of the primary sector has curtailed job opportunities in rural areas.
- Increase in labour force: Population growth has resulted in unemployment as population and employment opportunities are not expanding simultaneously.
- Inappropriate Technology: The technology used in agricultural and industrial sectors has become increasingly capital intensive leading to less labour absorption.
- Dependence on agriculture: Large part of the population is dependent on agriculture. But agriculture being seasonal provides work for a few months. So this gives rise to unemployment.
- The decline of Cottage and Small industries: The industrial development has led to the decline of the cottage and small industries. The production of cottage industries began to fall and many workers have lost their jobs.
- Low mobility of labour: Mobility of labour in India is low. Due to attachment to the family, people do not go too far off areas for jobs. Factors like language, religion, and climate are also responsible for low mobility. The immobility of labour adds to unemployment.
What are the types of unemployment?
Types of unemployment in India are :
- Rural Unemployment: There are two types of rural unemployment:
- Disguise unemployment,
- Seasonal unemployment.
- Urban unemployment: There are two types in it. They are :
- Industrial unemployment,
- Educated unemployment.
The other types of unemployments are:
- Fractional unemployment
- Casual unemployment
- Structural unemployment
- Technical unemployment
- Cyclical unemployment
- Chronical unemployment
Write the objectives and functioning of MGNREGA.
MGNREGS is an anti-poverty programme. The objective of the Act is to enhance livelihood security in rural areas by providing at least 100 days of guaranteed wage employment in a financial year to every household whose adult members volunteer to do unskilled manual work at statutory minimum wage.
Those who are willing to work under this program have to register their names Then jobs are allotted to them within 15 days of registering their names. Those who do not get jobs within 3 5 days are given unemployment allowance at rates fixed by the government.
Write a note on the Gender Dimension of Labour.
Gender Dimension of Labour: The following aspects of women employment may be observed:
- The marginalization of work: Women constitute nearly 31% of the labour force in rural areas and 20% in urban areas. The female labour force participation is declining while that of males is increasing. Female labour force participation in India declined from approximately 40 percent in the 1990s to 22.5 percent in 2011-12.
- Barriers of Employment: Women face multiple barriers relating to access to employment, choice of work, working conditions, employment security, wage parity, discrimination, and balancing the competing burdens of work and family responsibilities.
- Economic dependence of women: In 2004-05, 85 percent of the female population was completely financially dependent and without any, employment/ income.
- characterized by low productivity activities (63 percent versus 44 percent of males): a lower share of women are engaged in regular employment (13 percent, as against 20 percent of males): and a significant share of urban women work in the service sector as domestic workers.
Higher social spending, including investment in education, can lead to higher female labour force participation Representation of women in higher cadres of employment (IAKAS) needs to be improved as well as in legislative assemblies, councils, and Parliament.
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