1st PUC History Question Bank Chapter 6 Medieval Period Towards Change

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Karnataka 1st PUC History Question Bank Chapter 6 Medieval Period Towards Change

1st PUC History Medieval Period Towards Change One Mark Questions and Answers

Question 1.
Which was the ‘Divine language’ of Medieval Christianity?
Answer:
The‘Divine language’ of Medieval Christianity was Latin.

Question 2.
To which place was the Papal Court shifted from Rome?
Answer:
The Papa Court was shifted from Rome to Avignon.

Question 3.
Who wrote the book‘Divine Comedy’?
Answer:
Dante wrote the book‘Divine Comedy’.

Question 4.
What is fief?
Answer:
In the European Feudal system, Kings / Greater Lords granted lands to Vassals who had to swear fidelity and loyalty of service to the Lords. These lands were called as fiefs.

Question 5.
Who was the first Pope to make Avignon as his Centre?
Answer:
Clement V a Frenchman, when he became the Pope moved the Papal Court to Avignon.

Question 6.
Why Early Middle Ages is called ‘Dark Age’?
Answer:
Because of the confused and chaotic state of affairs that existed in Europe during that period.

Question 7.
Which Pope deposed King Henry IV?
Answer:
Pope Gregory Vll deposed King Henry IV.

Question 8.
Who were Vassals?
Answer:
In the European feudal system, the King or the Greater Lord granted land to someone. It was known as fief, and the person who received it was called as ‘Vassal’ of that King / Lord.

Question 9.
When did the Papal Schism end?
Answer:
The Papal Schism ended in 1414.C.E.

Question 10.
Who wrote the book ‘Canterbury tales’?
Answer:
Geoffrey Chaucer wrote‘The Canterbury Tales’.

Question 11.
Who was the first Pope?
Answer:
St. Peter was the first Pope.

Question 12.
Who wanted to free the Church from the King’s influence?
Answer:
Pope Gregory VII wanted to free the church from the King’s influence.

Question 13.
What was Constantinople originally called as?
Answer:
Constantinople was originally called as Byzantium.

Question 14.
How many phases is the Middle age divided into?
Answer:

  1. The Middle age is divided into three phases, namely.
  2. Early Middle age; High Middle Age; Later Middle age.

Question 15.
Whom did King Henry IV appoint without the consent of the Pope?
Answer:
King Henry IV appointed the Bishop of Milan without the consent of the Pope.

Question 16.
Who continued to be the Pope at Rome during the Papal Schism?
Answer:
Urban VI continued to be the Pope at Rome.

Question 17.
Who shifted the Papal Court back to Rome from Avignon?
Answer:
Pope Gregory XI shifted the Papal Court back to Rome.

Question 18.
Which City-States became flourishing Trade Centres?
Answer:
City-States like Pisaj Venice and Genoa became flourishing Trade Centres.

Question 19.
What was the important characteristic of the medieval period?
Answer:
Sophisticated urban life was an important characteristic of this period.

Question 20.
What is the Early Middle Age also called as?
Answer:
It is also called as the ‘Dark Age’.

1st PUC History Medieval Period Towards Change Two Mark Questions and Answers

Question 1.
Mention any two causes for the decline of Pope’s authority in the 14th century.
Answer:

  1. The order and contradictions within the Papal order and ecclesiastical arrangements.
  2. The immoral successors.
  3. The rise of National Monarchies.

Question 2.
Name any two trade centres of Medieval Europe.
Answer:
City-States like Venice and Genoa were two Trade Centres of Medieval Europe.

Question 3.
Name any two Universities that came into existence in Medieval Europe.
Answer:
Oxford and Cambridge in England, Bologna, and Naples in Italy and Paris and Montpellier in France were some of the Universities that came into existence in Medieval Europe.

Question 4.
Name any two intellectuals of Medieval Europe?
Answer:
Robert Grosseteste, Roger Bacon, Peter Abelard, and St. Thomas Aquinas were some of the major intellectuals.

Question 5.
Name any two literary styles of Medieval Europe.
Answer:
Romances and Fabliaux a type of comic verse, were two important literary styles.

Question 6.
Which arc the styles of architecture found in Medieval Europe?
Answer:
The Medieval period had buildings and monuments in the Romanesque and Gothic styles. Romanesque style had rounded arches, small windows, massive walls of stone and the predominance of horizontal lines. Main features of the Gothic style were pointed arches, ribbed vaulting, and buttress.

Question 7.
From which word is ‘Feudalism’ derived? What is its meaning?
Answer:
The word Feudalism is derived from the German word ‘Feud’, which means a piece of land.

Question 8.
Mention the pyramidical structural hierarchy of Feudalism.
Answer:
Feudalism was based on the system of structural hierarchy linked to the ownership and cultivation of land. It was a pyramidical structure. On the peak was the King. Under him were the Nobles and Knights followed by Vassals all of whom owned the lands, and finally, Serfs and Peasants who were the actual cultivators without any ownership privileges.

Question 9.
Write two features of Romanesque style.
Answer:
The main features of the Romanesque style were the rounded arches, small windows, massive walls of stone and the predominance of horizontal lines.

Question 10.
Write any two features of the Gothic style.
Answer:
Gothic architecture was one of the most attractive building styles. The main features of this style were pointed arches, ribbed vaulting, and buttress.

Question 11.
Name the two factors that speeded up the agricultural production in Medieval Europe.
Answer:
New techniques and tools like heavy ploughs, crop rotation, use of water and windmills, agricultural equipments made of iron and using horses to till the fields came into use and agricultural production increased enormously.

Question 12.
In which languages did the Literaturejn Vernacular became popular during middle age?
Answer:
Literature in vernacular languages like French, German, Spanish, and Italian became popular.

Question 13.
Which were the important literary works of Medieval Europe?
Answer:
‘Divine Comedy’ by Dante Alighieri and ‘The Canterbury Tales’ by Geoffrey Chaucer were the ones.

Question 14.
What is Early Middle Age?
Answer:
It began around 500 C.E. and ended around 1050 C.E. It is also called the ‘Dark age’ because of the confused and chaotic state of affairs that existed in Europe.

Question 15.
Mention the important institutions of medieval ages.
Answer:
The important institutions of medieval ages were the Church, Society, and the state and feudalism.

Question 16.
What is Fabliaux?
Answer:
It is a medieval comic verse tale popular in the 12th and 13th century France. Dante’s ‘Divine Comedy’ in Italian verse, is a monumental narrative in effective rhyming.

Question 17.
What is Manorial System?
Answer:
It was an important institution of the high middle ages. Under this system, the serfs worked in agricultural estates centred around a ‘Manor’ owned by a Lord. They were not slaves and owned lands also, but were under the control and jurisdiction of the Lords.

Question 18.
What were the impacts on the development in medieval society?
Answer:
The developments in medieval society had their impact on the economy, education, literature, and intellectual revival.

1st PUC History Medieval Period Towards Change Five Mark Questions and Answers

Question 1.
Write about the Manorial system.
Answer:
The manorial system was an important institution of the high middle ages. Under this system, the serfs worked in agricultural estates situated around a ‘Manor’ owned by a Lord. The serfs were not slaves. They too owned a piece of land but were under the control and jurisdiction of a Lord. They worked in the Lord’s fields as well as their own and paid taxes to the Lord. They undertook activities like grazing, collection of firewood, fishing, and cultivation on a common basis. It was like a closed community living. During the later high middle ages, the condition of the serfs improved. They paid rent instead of giving duties or services to the Lord.

Question 2.
Mark the socio-economic changes in Medieval Europe.
Answer:
A class of nobility emerged in Medieval Europe during this period. They involved themselves in cultural and political activities. The Church controlled the local skirmishes and battles. So the Nobles became free to develop the ideals of knighthood. This led to the development of etiquette. The attitude towards women also changed.

In the Manorial system, the serfs started to pay rents. Coins or currency replaced barter trade. Currency helped the revival of trade and commerce. It led to the advancement of networks of roads and river transport systems. City-States like Pisa, Venice, and Genoa became flourishing trade centres. Cities like Paris, London and Cologne expanded and their population grew.

There was an increase in the demand for countryside goods, which strengthened the economic fife of the. people overall. Sophisticated urban life was an important characteristic of this period. There developed a business class. This class established trade guilds to protect its own interests and made many rules for business transactions.

There were two classes among the clergy-the higher class and the lower class. The higher clergy led a luxurious life, while the lower clergy lived with limited requirements and humility. So there developed great disregard for the higher clergy.

Question 3.
What were the causes for the decline of feudalism?
Answer:
There were several reasons for the decline of feudalism. The major ones are given hereunder.

1. Rise of strong Monarchies:
Europe saw the growth of many strong monarchies, where the Kings suppressed the feudal Lords which led to the decline of feudalism.

2. Shifting of loyalty:
Common people and serfs were unhappy as they were heavily taxed and felt neglected. They shifted their faith and loyalty to the Kings, which further weakened the hold of the feudal lords.

3. Growth of commerce and industry:
With the growth in commerce arid industry, people found new ways for livelihood and left their lands. The rise of the independent middle class took place, which was a lethal blow to the feudal lords.

4. Dominance of money economy:
Payment in the form of services was replaced by money. Commoners and serfs stopped giving military services to Lords, which further depleted their power and dominance.

5. Building of strong armies by the Kings:
The use of gun powder and well-organized armies resulted in the weakening of feudalism. Commoners and serfs under the protection of Kings felt more secure.

6. Scarcity of labourers:
The growth of industries and commerce provided alternate employment and depleted the labour strength. Spread of epidemics like plague reduced the number of workers. Demand for workers and their increased wages brought down the importance of the feudal lords.

7. Struggle between the feudal Lords:
The feudal Lords were troublesome to the serfs and commoners and fighting among themselves for control. These internal wars further decreased their number and the Church also put many restrictions on their functioning.

Question 4.
Describe the conflict between the Popes and the Kings in Medieval Europe.
Answer:
A conflict arose between Pope Gregory VIII and the Holy Roman Emperor Henry IV. The King appointed the Bishop of Milan without the consent of the Pope. The Pope wanted to free the Church from King’s influence. He made alliances with many German Princes, who were against Henry IV. They together deposed the King who was forced to seek the Pope’s forgiveness.

For this, the King was made to wait for three days on barefoot and in plain clothes in front of the Citadel. The King obtained the Pardon and got back his powers. Later in a melodramatic episode. King Henry IV chased Pope Gregory VII out of Rome. In the 14th century, the supremacy of the Popes declined because of the following reasons.

  1. The contradictions within the Papal order and ecclesiastical arrangements.
  2. The immoral successors.
  3. The rise of National Monarchies.

During the 4th Century, a conflict between Philip IV, the King of France and Boniface VIII, the Pope at Rome began. It was due to Philip IV imposing taxes on the Church. Boniface VIII opposed this and insisted that the King had to take Papal permission to tax the Church. The conflict went to such an extent that Boniface was beaten to death. After this, Clement V, a Frenchman became the Pope and he moved the. Papal Court to Avignon. It continued in Avignon for 67 years. 7 Popes of this period were all French and remained in Avignon. Gregory XI shifted the Court back to Rome.

During the Papacy of Urban VI, differences arose between him and the Cardinals, which gave rise to Papal Schism. The Cardinals elected Clement VII as Anti-Pope and he shifted the Papal Court back to Avignon. Urban VI continued to be the Pope at Rome. This resulted in the division of Papacy into two groups. To resolve this, the Cardinals elected another Anti-Pope, Alexander V and the other two Popes were asked to resign. They were excommunicated when they refused to do so. Thus the Papal Schism ended by 1414 CE. It led to the decline of power and prestige of the Popes.

Question 5.
Explain the different phases of Middle age.
Answer:
Medieval European history, also called as the Middle Ages is marked from the fall of the Western Roman Empire in 476 CE to the fall of the Eastern Roman Empire and Constantinople in 1453 C.E. This period had a span of about 1000 years. During this period, the accomplishments of the Greeks and Romans were neglected. Various German tribes invaded Western and Central Europe. The Middle Ages witnessed the rise of the Byzantine Empire and Islamic and Western civilization.

The Eastern Roman Empire centred in Constantinople, survived as the Byzantine Empire for nearly 1000 years after the fall of Rome. Constantinople was earlier called as Byzantium, which was founded in the 7th century BCE by a Greek King called Byzas. Due to the fall of the Roman Empire, there was political and social instability in Europe. The Church emerged as a powerful authority and brought the required stability and order.

The Middle age is divided into 3 phases as follows:

1. Early Middle Age:
It began around 500 C.E. and ended around 1050 C.E. It is also called the ‘Dark age’, because of the confused and chaotic state of affairs that existed in Europe.

2. High Middle Age:
The period lasted from 1050 C.E to 1300 C.E. This period witnessed advancement in terms of agriculture, improvement in the standard of living and Education along with political stability. Towns and Universities emerged. The authority of the Popes increased.

3. Later Middle Age:
The period between 1300 C.E. to 1453 C.E. is called the later Middle Age. This period witnessed further development of towns and cities and a decline in the power of feudalism and Church. A new entrepreneurial and intellectual class emerged. They challenged the State and the Church.

Question 6.
What are the Merits of feudalism?
Answer:
Feudalism was time tested and need-based system. Its merits are as follows:

  1. It helped the growth of decentralized political administration. The King was not only advised by vassals but at times he was forced to accept their terms and conditions. This checked the growth of absolute monarchy.
  2. Feudalism helped to preserve monarchy and Monarchs sanctioned fiefs to the Vassals, who in turn took an oath of loyalty and co-operation to fight for him.
  3. In due course of time, feudalism helped the growth of ‘strong Monarchy’ as the feudal Lords became the courtiers of the Monarchs.
  4. No doubt the Kings and Vassals had personal interests, yet they were united against invasions. This led to national defense and the rise of Nationalism.
  5. The constant conflict helped the growth of military techniques in terms of better arms, training, and organization. It encouraged the concept of chivalry. The Nobles and Knights became more mindful towards the poor and needy. Chivalry also developed respect towards women.
  6. Feudalism brought stability and order in the society. The collective defense and maintenance of law and order within the feudal estates ensured protection and justice to the people.
  7. Feudalism also developed a sense of duty and order. It was the King’s duty to protect the rights of the Vassals over their lands, and that of Vassals to protect their serfs. Likewise, the serfs had their duties towards Vassals and Vassals towards Kings.

1st PUC History Medieval Period Towards Change Ten Mark Questions and Answers

Question 1.
Discuss the Merits and Demerits of feudalism.
Answer:
Feudalism developed in Western Europe. It was restricted to the periods between 5thand 12thcenturies C.E. The 5th century marked the fall of the Roman Empire and the 12thcentury marked the emergence of national Monarchies. Feudalism in general stands for the decentralized system of governance and economy based on land.

The merits of feudalism are:

  1. Feudalism helped the growth of decentralized political administration. The King was not only advised by Vassals but at times he was forced to accept their terms and conditions. This checked the growth of absolute monarchy.
  2. Feudalism helped to preserve monarchy and Monarchs sanctioned fiefs to Vassals, who in turn took an oath of loyalty and co-operation to fight for him.
  3. In due course of time, feudalism helped the growth of ‘strong Monarchy’ as the feudal Lords became the courtiers of the Monarchs.
  4. No doubt the King and Vassals had personal interests, yet they were united against invasions. This led to national defense and the rise of nationalism.
  5. The constant conflict helped the growth of military techniques in terms of better arms, training, and organization. It encouraged the concept of chivalry. The Nobles and Knights – became more mindful towards the poor and needy. Chivalry also developed respect towards women.
  6. Feudalism brought stability and order in the society. The collective defense and maintenance of law and order within the feudal estate ensured protection and justice to the people.
  7. Feudalism also developed a sense of duty and order. It was the King’s duty to protect the rights of the Vassals over their lands, and that of Vassals to protect their serfs. Likewise, the serfs had their duties towards Vassals and Vassals towards Kings.

Demerits of feudalism:

  1. There were often skirmishes and wars between Vassals or between Vassals and Kings. So there was no stability, peace, and order. It had its own impact on society and the economy.
  2. The vassals always favoured nominal Monarchy and were against National Government and National interest.
  3. The Nobles were self-interested. Their tyranny led to the sufferings of commoners and serfs. Serfs were the victims of violence. Often, war by nobles and war expenses led to the overtaxing of common people.
  4. The loyalty of the people was restricted to the feudal Lords and not the Nation or King, which was a hindrance to the growth of Nationhood.
  5. Feudalism increased the gap between the rich and the poor. The poor led a subsistent life whereas the nobles led a life of leisure and idleness.
  6. The Church also participated in a feudal system. It had vast lands and worked like feudal Lords. There were also conflicts. between the Bishops and Kings and his Vassals.

All Chapter 1st PUC History Question Bank with Answers Karnataka Board

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