1st PUC History Question Bank Chapter 3 History of Ancient Civilization

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Karnataka 1st PUC History Question Bank Chapter 3 History of Ancient Civilization

1st PUC History History of Ancient Civilization One Mark Questions and Answers

Question 1.
On which river bank did the Egyptian civilization develop?
Answer:
Egyptian civilization developed on the banks of River Nile.

Question 2.
What is Egyptian writing called as?
Ans
Earlier Egyptian pictographic writing was called as Hieroglyphics.

Question 3.
Who was the first woman Empress in the world?
Answer:
Thutmose I’s daughter Hatshepsut was the first woman Empress.

Question 4.
Why did Egyptians preserve the dead bodies of their Kings?
Answer:
Egyptians preserved the dead bodies of their Kings, as they believed in the transmigration of souls and that their Kings were Gods.

Question 5.
Which is the biggest pyramid in the world?
Answer:
The pyramid of Giza is the biggest pyramid in the world

Question 6.
What is the meaning of the word ‘Mesopotamia’?
Answer:
Mesopotamia is a Greek word which means ‘Land between two rivers’.

Question 7.
Who built the Hanging Garden?
Answer:
King Nebuchadnezzar got the Hanging Garden built at Babylon.

Question 8.
What is a ziggurat?
Answer:
Ziggurats are temples with tall towers, built by the MesopotamiAnswer:

Question 9.
Who was the greatest Ruler of China?
Answer:
Shih Hu Wang Ti was the greatest Ruler of China.

Question 10.
Who was the proponent of Taoism?
Answer:
Lao Tse, a great philosopher was the proponent of Taoism.

Question 11.
Who popularized Buddhism in China?
Answer:
Buddhism spread to China from India during Kanishka’s period in the 1st century. The Buddhist monks and traders from India popularized Buddhism in China.

Question 12.
What is civilization referred to?
Answer:
Civilization refers to a more clearly defined human society.

Question 13.
From which Language is the word Civilization derived?
Answer:
The word civilization is derived from the Latin word ‘civilis’ meaning City or City-States.

Question 14.
What is meant by Civilization?
Answer:
Civilization refers to our material gains, or what we have.

Question 15.
Where did most of the civilizations in the world develop?
Answer:
Most of the civilizations in the world developed on the banks of rivers.

Question 16.
What were the Egyptian Kings called as?
Answer:
The Egyptian Kings were called as ‘Pharaohs’.

Question 17.
What is the period of the Old Kingdom in Egypt also known as?
Answer:
The Period of Old Kingdom is also known as the Period of Pyramids.

Question 18.
What is the Period of the Middle Kingdom in Egypt also known as?
Answer:
The Period of the Middle Kingdom is also known as the Period of Feudal Lords.

Question 19.
Who was the father of Hatshepsut?
Answer:
Thutmose I was the father of Hatshepsut.

Question 20.
Who was the Sun God of the Egyptians?
Answer:
Ra was their Sun God.

Question 21.
Who was the Goddess of motherhood as per ancient Egyptians?
Answer:
Isis was the Goddess of motherhood for the ancient Egyptians.

Question 22.
What did the ancient Egyptians believed in?
Answer:
They believed in life after death.

Question 23.
What was papyrus used for?
Answer:
Papyrus was used for writing, by the ancient Egyptians.

Question 24.
What is the pyramid of Giza?
Answer:
The pyramid of Giza is the tomb of King Khufu.

Question 25.
What is Mesopotamia also called as?
Answer:
Mesopotamia is also called as ‘The Cradle and Graveyard of civilizations’ and ‘The Land of Shinar’.

Question 26.
Which Chinese Ruler believed that-people are basically undisciplined?
Answer:
Shih Hu WangTi.

Question 27.
What theory did the Chou [Zhou] dynasty evolve?
Answer:
Chou [Zhou] dynasty evolved the theory of ‘Mandate of Heaven’ i.e. ‘Divine Origin’.

Question 28.
Which dynasty replaced Qin Dynasty?
Answer:
Han Dynasty replaced Qin Dynasty.

1st PUC History History of Ancient Civilization Two Mark Questions and Answers

Question 1.
Mention any two important inventions that helped the growth of civilizations.
Answer:

  1. The invention of moving wheel by man brought major changes in the professions of potter, carpenter, blacksmith, etc. and the transport system.
  2. The discovery of the cultivation of land, or Agriculture around 6,000 B.C., brought a great change in the way of living of the early humans, making them settlers from being nomads.

Question 2.
Define civilization.
Answer:
Civilization refers to our material gains and to the huge group of geographically oriented people.

Question 3.
Name any two ancient civilizations.
Answer:
Egyptian and Indus valley civilizations were two ancient civilizations.

Question 4.
Why are river valleys called as cradles of civilizations?
Answer:
Egypt, Mesopotamia, India, China, etc were the first human settlements. Humans first formed groups to live together. Valleys of rivers like Nile, Euphrates, and Tigris, Indus, Hwang – Ho and Yangtze-Sikiyang, etc. have helped these great civilizations to flourish. Hence the river valleys are called the cradles of civilizations.

Question 5.
Why is Egypt called the Gift of Nile?
Answer:
Because of Nile, plenty of food, fodder and uninterrupted supply of water was possible to Egypt. The food security provided sufficient leisure for the growth of civilization. Nile is born in the thick equatorial forests of Africa. It is in full spate throughout the year. But for Nile, Egyptian civilization would not have developed. Therefore Egypt is called the gift of Nile.

Question 6.
Name any two Gods and Goddesses of Egypt.
Answer:
Ra was the Sun God. Osiris, the God of the dead or underworld, Isis was the Goddess of. motherhood and the wife of Osiris. Horus, Hathor, etc. were minor Gods.

Question 7.
Why is Mesopotamia called as ‘the cradle and grave’ of civilizations?
Answer:
The two rivers Euphrates and Tigris formed the fertile plains. Early tillers settled in villages. With the growth of population, these villages developed into towns and later into cities. These plains were the cradles of many civilizations which developed and later vanished during 3500 to 500 B.C.E. Hence Mesopotamia is called as ‘Both the Cradle and Graveyard of Civilizations’.

Question 8.
Write any two causes responsible for the decline of Mesopotamian civilization.
Answer:

  1. Internal quarrels among the rulers led to disunity and disorder.
  2. The rulers failed to bring a perfect and workable political system.

Question 9.
Name the river valley on which Chinese civilization flourished.
Answer:
The river plains of Hwang-Ho in northern China and Yangtze and Sikiyang in Southern China, provided moderate challenges and minimum facilities, to develop a civilization.

Question 10.
Who built the Great Wall of China? Why?
Answer:
Shih Hu Wang Ti, the greatest Ruler of the Han dynasty of China, built the Great Wall of China to protect the Kingdom from the attack of Mongols.

Question 11.
Mention any two important scientific inventions of Chinese.
Answer:
Rockets, Seismograph, Mariner compass, etc. were the important scientific inventions of Chinese.

Question 12.
Name any two important philosophers of ancient China.
Answer:
Mencius, Confucius, and Lao-tse were the important philosophers of ancient China.

Question 13.
Which were the first sites of human settlements?
Answer:
Egypt, Mesopotamia, India, China, etc. were the first sites of human settlements.

Question 14.
What was the political condition of Egyptian Civilization?
Answer:
The early people settled into villages, which developed into cities and later the City-States were formed. They were ruled by Kings. This is also known as pre-dynastic period.

Question 15.
In how many ways can the rules of Egyptian dynasties be divided?
Answer: The rules of Egyptian dynasties can be divided into 3 parts-

  1. The period of Old Kingdom
  2. The period of Middle Kingdom
  3. The period of New Kingdom.

Question 16.
What are the important books by the ancient Egyptians?
Answer:
The books of Dead, Coffin Text, The Story of Ship-wrecked Sailor and The tales of Anupu and Bitiu are some of the important books by the ancient Egyptians.

Question 17.
Who developed the calendar system?
Answer:
Egyptians developed a solar Calendar System of 365 days with 12 months in a year and 30 days in each month.

Question 18.
What is Sphinx?
Answer:
The sphinx has the head of a man and the body of a lion. Emperor Khaphre got it carved. It is 240 feet long and 66 feet high and carved out of a single stone. It is located in front of the Pyramid of Giza.

Question 19.
What areas did Mesopotamia include?
Answer:
Mesopotamia included the area of present Eastern Syria, Southern Turkey and most of Iraq.

Question 20.
Into how many groups was the Mesopotamian society divided?
Answer:
The Mesopotamian society was divided into four groups:

  1. The Royals.
  2. The Priests.
  3. Rich Landlords and Merchants.
  4. Slaves.

Question 21.
What does the word Shih Hu Wang Ti mean?
Answer:
Shih hu Wang Ti was the greatest Ruler of China belonging to the Han dynasty. Shih means first and Hu Wang Ti means Emperor.

Question 22.
Who was Wu Ti?
Answer:
Wu Ti was a famous Ruler of the Han dynasty. He divided the Empire into 13 provinces and centralised the Administration.

Question 23.
Mention some major inventions of the ancient Chinese.
Answer:
Silk, Tea, Paper, Brushes for painting and writing, Abacus, Acupuncture, Rudder, Gun-powder, Glass, Pottery, Porcelain, Rockets, Spoon, Forks, Umbrella, etc.

Question 24.
Write about the Art and Architecture of ancient Chinese.
Answer:
The Chinese had developed wonderful paintings. They painted on silk cloth, tomb walls, pots and papers. They had developed the art of casting bronze statues of animals and monsters. The Great Wall of China and the number of Pagodas are testimonials of their architectural skills.

Question 25.
Write about Chinese Sculpture?
Answer:
Chinese developed the art of casting bronze statues of animals and monsters. This art developed during Shang and Chou Dynasties. Buddhism influenced their sculpture and the statues of Bodhisatwa carved in stone are found in large numbers.

Question 26.
What is Terracotta Sculpture?
Answer:
The Terracotta army assembled in the tomb of the first Kin Emperor consists of life-size images of more than 8000 warriors and horses.

Question 28.
Into how many ways is the political history of China classified into.
Answer:
The political history of China is classified into two major eras:

  1. Ancient era-2100-221 B.C.E
  2. Imperial era-221 B.C.E-1911 C.E.

1st PUC History History of Ancient Civilization Five Mark Questions and Answers

Question 1.
Define civilization. Distinguish between civilization and culture.
Answer:
The word civilization is derived from the Latin word ‘civils’ meaning City or City-States. It stands for a more matured and refined life.
The differences between Culture and Civilization are as follows.
Culture:

  1. Culture is more of an internal nature.
  2. It includes art, literature, religion, philosophy, food and dress, thoughts and beliefs, customs and traditions.
  3. It has no standards of measurement.
  4. It is the way we believe, behave think and act.
  5. It cannot be said to be always advancing.
  6. Culture comes first.
  7. There can be a culture without civilization.

Civilization:

  1. It is of external nature.
  2. It includes towns, cities, villages, buildings, bridges, transport, technology, etc.
  3. It has standards of measurement.
  4. It is the material attainments, gains, and facilities used to make the life more comfortable.
  5. It is always advancing.
  6. Civilization grows later.
  7. There cannot be a civilization without culture.

Question 2.
Discuss the factors that helped the growth of civilizations.
Ans:
The factors that helped the growth of civilizations are as follows:

  1. Deposition of fertile alluvial soil caused by the river floods.
  2. Continuous and uninterrupted supply of water for irrigation and domestic purposes.
  3. Favorable climate generally found on the river valleys.
  4. Plenty of food, fruits, and vegetables for the humans and fodder for their animals.
  5. River valleys helped fishing.
  6. They helped the growth of trade and communication by providing means of transport.

Above factors reduced the burden of man in wandering for food and risk of life. There is a strong argument that “Men become more civilized if they have leisure to do creative work”. It is certain that river valleys provided them food in plenty and sufficient leisure to develop civilizations.

Humans invented metals, made tools, were able to cultivate the land, built buildings in wood and stone, prepared vessels, boats, weapons, furniture, clothing, jewellery, and many other things.

Question 3.
Explain the political conditions of Egyptian civilization.
Ans:
The early Egyptians settled into villages, which developed into cities and later the City-States were formed. They were ruled by Kings. This is known as the pre-dynastic period. These Kings were engaged in inter City – State quarrels. Stronger City-States showed their supremacy and started taking over other weaker City-States. This made way to the birth of Kingdoms. Different dynasties ruled these Kingdoms. About 30 dynasties have ruled Egypt for more than 3000 years. No dynasty survived for more than 6-7 generations.

The Egyptian Kings were called ‘Pharaohs’. They were considered as representatives of God on earth, hence enjoyed unlimited power. The Pharaoh ‘Menes’, united south and north Egypt in around 3000 B.C.E and made Memphis as his capital. The strong central government with absolute monarchy, a well-controlled administration and strict implementation of laws were the basic features of Egyptian polity.

The rule of dynasties can be divided into 3 phases.

  1. The Period of Old Kingdom.
  2. The Period of Middle Kingdom.
  3. The Period of New Kingdom.

The Period of Old Kingdom:
It is also known as the Period of Pyramids. The Pharaohs of this period were very strong. There was a council of elders to advise the King, whose advice was not binding on the King. Pharaohs appointed Vizir, the Prime Minister who headed the Administration, Justice, and Treasury. The Local officers maintained the records and the accounts.

The Period of Middle Kingdom:
It is also known as the period of Feudal Lords. During this period, Lords became more powerful than the Pharaohs. It led to many internal wars and anarchy. The authority of Pharaohs was restored by Amen Hotep I.

The Period of New Kingdom:
During the new Kingdom, the Kings raised a powerful army and built a very strong Empire. Thutmose I conquered new territories and expanded the Empire. His daughter, Hatshepsut succeeded him. She was the first Empress in the history of the world. She ruled for twenty-one years.

Question 4.
Write a short note on learning and literature of the Egyptian civilization.
Ans
Egyptians developed pictographic writing. It is one of the earliest forms of writing. Egyptian writing is called Hieroglyphics. Glyph means a sign. Hieroglyphics contains hundreds of signs. Some of them stand for complete words while others represent sounds. Papyrus was used for writing. ‘The Books of Dead’, ‘Coffin Text’, ‘The Story of Ship wrecked Sailor’, ‘The tales of Anupu and Bitiu’, etc. were the important books of that era.

Egyptians had a fair knowledge of Medicine, Geometry, Calendars, Astronomy, and Mathematics. Most of the scholars of ancient Egypt belonged to the priestly class. The construction of huge pyramids proves beyond doubt that Egyptians had sound knowledge of Geometry and Arithmetic. They were the first to develop the fraction system.

They made a clear distinction between stars and planets. Their calendar was based on sun and known as a solar calendar. They developed the calendar of 3 65 days with 12 months in a year and 30 days in a month. They divided the year into three seasons of four months each. About 1500 B.C.E, they invented the Shadow Clock to mark the times of a day. A specimen of such an Egyptian shadow clock is preserved in the Berlin Museum.

Question 5.
Write a note on Art and Architecture of the ancient Egyptians.
Answer:
Egyptians were great builders. They developed fine arts. Their arts and architecture reflected their culture. They built temples for their Gods and Pyramids to bury their Kings. These are the proofs of a well organized and highly skilled artists, craftsmen and labourers. The Sphinx has the head of a man and body of a lion. Emperor Khaphre got it carved. It is 240 feet long and 66 feet high, carved out of a single stone.

The pyramid of Giza is the tomb of King Khufu. It is one of the heaviest structures ever built. It was built by his son and grandson. It is the biggest pyramid, 746 x 746 and 481 ft high 23,00,000 stone blocks of average 2.5-ton weight were used in its construction. It occupies 13 acres of area. A million slaves worked for 20 years to complete it.

It had a magnificent entrance. The road in front of it was lined with 365 statues of Sphinxes and two tall Obelisks stood on either side of the main road. During festive seasons the statues of Gods were paraded through the doors into the temple. There are more than 90 smaller Pyramids, still standing after 4000 years of their construction. The Pyramids are fine examples of the outstanding technical knowledge and sound administrative ability of the ancient Egyptians.

Question 6.
Write a short note on the Code of Hammurabi.
Answer:
Hammurabi, the Babylonian King who ruled Sumer between 2123 to 2081 B.C.E was one of the greatest Rulers of Mesopotamian civilization. He was a great conqueror and an able administrator. He became immortal in the history of mankind by compiling his ‘Code of Law’. He collected all the existing civil laws, classified them, improved on them, added new ones and codified them into one body of laws. It included 282 laws, relating to all aspects of life such as personal property, trade, and business, accidents, labour, marriages, divorce, slaves, rights of men and women, etc.

The code of law is engraved on a black stone, with the image of King Hammurabi receiving the laws from God Shamash the Sun God. The code is a mixture of enlightened laws and barbarous punishments. It gave complete responsibility to the State to give justice and deterred people from committing crimes. It aimed at providing equality, and rights to own property for women and slaves. It was truly an everlasting and monumental legal achievement of Hammurabi.

Question 7.
Write about the socio-economic conditions of Mesopotamia.
Answer:
1. Social conditions:
The Mesopotamian society was divided into four levels.

  • The Royals
  • The Priests
  • Rich landlords and Merchants
  • Slaves

Nobles enjoyed powers by heredity. They commanded great prestige and power in Administration and Army. Priests and scribes held high posts in the administration. They enjoyed a high status in the society. Farmers, artists, craftsmen, shopkeepers, and merchants for pied the third strata and slaves were at the lowest level. They could be bought and sold. Women enjoyed considerable freedom with right to property. They had social, religious and economic freedom.

2. Economic condition:
Agriculture was their main occupation, followed by cattle rearing and dairy farming. They used water wisely by digging canals from both Euphrates and Tigris. Mesopotamians also built dykes, embankments and storage basins to utilise water throughout the year. It is believed that the Shadoof was developed by them, for artificial irrigation.

Wheat, barley, fruits, and dates were grown in abundance and exported. Initially, they had a barter system but later started using metal coins. They exported wooden and fiber clothes, hides, dates, etc. They imported various metals. They had trade relations with India and Egypt. Horses and asses were used as means of transport.

Question 8.
Write a note on Confucius and his philosophy.
Answer:
Confucius was the greatest of the Chinese philosophers. Born in the Kingdom of Lu in 571 B.C.E, he lost his father at the age of 3. He faced a lot of difficulties. Confucius learnt archery and music. He was married at the age of 19 and gave up family life at the age of 23. He worked in different capacities as a language teacher, editor, judge, and minister. He proved to be a great philosopher and teacher.

The philosophy of Confucius is known as ‘Confucianism’. It had a basis in common Chinese tradition and beliefs. He taught loyalty towards family, worship of ancestors, respect to elders and unity among the Chinese.

His sayings.

  1. What you do not like when done to yourself, do not do to others. It is considered as the golden rule of Confucius.
  2. Character is the foundation of society.
  3. Wisdom begins at home.
  4. The great man acts before he speaks and speaks according to his actions.
  5. Society rests on the obedience of children to their parents, wife to her husband and students to their teachers.
  6. Excessive taxation and barbaric punishment should be abolished.
  7. To see what is right and not to do it, is want of courage or of principle.
  8. He wished that unemployed be provided with jobs.
  9. The government must protect orphans, aged, widows, diseased and the disabled.

Question 9.
Write a note on Art and Architecture of China.
Answer:
1. Art of painting:
The Chinese had developed wonderful painting techniques. They painted on silk cloth, tomb walls, pots and papers. They believed that Tomb paintings were means to protect the dead and help their souls to go to heaven.

2. Sculpture:
Chinese developed the art of casting bronze statues of animals and monsters. This art developed during Shangs and Chous. Buddhism influenced their sculpture and the statues of Bodhisatva carved in stone are found in large numbers. Another noteworthy example of their mastery in sculpting is the Terracotta army consisting of more than 8,000 life-size warriors and horses, assembled in the tomb of the first Kin Emperor.

Chinese were great builders. The Great Wall of China which is visible from outer space is the finest monument for their architectural skill. It was built purely for the utilitarian purpose of protecting the country from Mongolian invasions. It is 2380 km long, about 22 ft high and 20 ft broad.

Watchtowers of400 ft high are built after every 300 ft. They also built great Palaces with mud and wood, which have not survived, and many Buddhist temples called Pagodas. Important among them are the Giant Wild Goose Pagoda and the Jade Pagoda. The temple of sleeping Buddha outside Peking, the present Beijing is also noteworthy.

Question 10.
Write a note on writing and literature of China.
Answer:
Chinese had developed the art of writing during the Shang period. Their script was standardized during the Chin rule. They have no alphabets and parts of speech. It consists of characters which are more than 40,000. Chinese writing started as pictographs, which was later developed into Logograms Chinese characters constitute the oldest continuously used systems of writing in the world.

Their writing played an important role in cultural unification. Chinese script also influenced Japanese, Korean and Vietnamese scripts. It is written from top to bottom. The inventions of paper, silk, and ink for writing helped the growth of writing and literature. The practice of writing history was also popular in China. Chinese literature comprised prose, poetry, philosophy, and history.

During the Han and Tang dynasties, Chinese poetry reached great heights. The Imperial Library of Han dynasty included 3123 volumes of classics, 2705 volumes on philosophy, 868 works on medicine,1318 volumes of poetry, 2568 volumes of mathematics and 790 volumes on war aspects. Tai-Li-Po the greatest of Chinese poets wrote 30 volumes of verse. Tu-Fu was also a great poet. Chinese had developed Geography, Geometry, Arithmetic, Calendars Astronomy and predicted eclipses.

Question 11.
Write a note on the inventions that have helped in the growth of civilizations.
Answer:
Many inventions such as the use of fire, rearing of animals for milk and meat, new weapons, tools, utensils, fishing nets, clay pots, discovery of weaving and building of huts and houses, new means and methods of transport, such as animals and carts etc., have brought revolutionary changes and given rise to new arts, crafts and occupations.

The quotation “Moving wheels made the Civilizations” is noteworthy. The invention of the moving wheel by humans brought major changes in the profession of potter, carpenter, blacksmith, rope maker, and transport system. It also increased the pace of growth of civilizations. Around 6000 B.C.E. a very important discovery i.e. the “Discovery of the cultivation of land. Agriculture” was made which brought a great change in the way of their living. Agriculture bound them to the soil, assured them food throughout the year and fodder for their animals.

Question 12.
What is River Valley? What is meant by ‘The Cradles of Civilization’?
Answer:
Most of the civilizations in the world developed on the banks of rivers. The places where humans settled first were naturally those parts of the world where the soil was rich and water was available for drinking and irrigation, wide and flat lands through which those rivers ran and the climate was warm. Humans appeared about 5.6 million years ago but started civilized life only 7000 years ago.

Egypt, Mesopotamia, India, China, etc were the first sites of human settlements. In these regions, they first formed groups to live together. Valleys of the rivers like Nile, Euphrates, and Tigris, Indus, Hwang- Ho and Yangtse – Sikiyang, etc. have helped great civilizations to flourish. Hence the river valleys are called, the Cradles of Civilizations.

Question 13.
What are the characteristics of a civilization?
Answer:
The major characteristics of a civilization are:

  1. Group of people having a specific livelihood and specific settlement patterns.
  2. Group of people having a specific pattern of administration.
  3. Group of people having a specific social pattern and unique cultural traits.
  4. During different ages, humans invented various metals and learnt their uses.
  5. The growth of civilization necessitated the need for internal and external security.
  6. It gave rise to complex administrative systems with bureaucracy and accounting which necessitated writing.
  7. It developed complex economic systems such as ownership of land, distribution of production, personal possession, taxation, barter system, and monetary system.

Question 14.
What are the sources for learning about the ancient Egyptian Civilization?
Answer:
It was a great civilization which began 7000 years ago. It continued for more than 3000 years. We have a variety of archaeological and literary sources. They help us to reconstruct the history of those times. Important among them are the pyramids, the temples, the innumerable sculptural images like the sculpture of Sphinx, host of paintings, and the various implements, tools, jewellery etc. kept in the Pyramids. The Hieroglyphic writing on the papyrus, the Rosetta stone inscription, etc. are also sources of this civilization. Between 1789-1802, Napoleon invaded Egypt and after that, the study of Egyptian Civilization gained momentum.

Question 15.
What were the causes for the decline of Egyptian civilization?
Answer:
Every human activity and accomplishment, with whatever high degree of perfection it might achieve, ends up in decay and disintegration as was the case with the Egyptian Civilization also. Many reasons are attributed to it. In brief, some of them are as given below.

  1. The Rulers failed to bring a perfect and workable political system.
  2. The weak Rulers were unable to maintain their authority and the feudal Lords gained control resulting in decay and disorder.
  3. The ruthless exploitation of lower class and religious intolerance resulted in disharmony and disunity in the society.
  4. Internal quarrels among the Rulers led to disunity and disorder.
  5. Invasions by uncivilized invaders from Africa and Assyria resulted in the demolition of . their temples and halt in the advancement. The invaders were more efficient in the art of warfare.
  6. The material welfare and contented life discouraged independent thinking, resulting in decline.

Question 16.
What are the salient features of Mesopotamian civilization?
Answer:
1. Political life:
Early Mesopotamians established the City-States first, which developed into Kingdoms and later into an Empire. King was both the head of administration and religion. Kings were regarded as the representatives of God on earth. He was the head of the State and owner of the property of the State. He ruled the State in the name of God. Many a time, the King’s authority fell in the hands of military officers. Only the powerful Kings exercised immense power. Priests had a greater voice in the administration. Provincial administration with Governors and horse borne postal system for communication were some important aspects.

2. Hammurabi:
He was a Babylonian King who conquered Sumer and ruled between 2123 to 2081 B.C.E. He was one of the greatest Rulers of Mesopotamian civilization. He was a great conqueror and an able administrator. He conquered the whole of Mesopotamia. He was an enlightened despot. He united Sumer and Akkad and divided the province into districts. He personally supervised the administration. He built palaces, temples and fortified Babylon. Central and provincial administration was carried out smoothly, according to the orders of the Emperor.

3. Code of Hammurabi:
Hammurabi has become immortal in the history of mankind by his ‘Code of Law’. He collected all the existing laws, classified, improved, added new ones and codified them. The code included 282 laws relating to all aspects of life. It is beautifully engraved on a black stone with the image of King Hammurabi shown as receiving the laws from God Shamash i.e. the Sun God. The code is a mixture of enlightened laws and barbarous punishments. It is aimed at providing equality, giving women the right to own and inherit property. The significance of the code lies in the fact that it covered all aspects of human life. It was an everlasting and monumental legal achievement of Hammurabi which has made him immortal.

1st PUC History History of Ancient Civilization Ten Mark Questions and Answers

Question 1.
Describe the contributions of Egyptian civilization.
Answer:
Nile River flowing northward has formed the most fertile plains of 15-20 kms on either side of it. Because of Nile, plenty of food, fodder and uninterrupted supply of water was possible. The food security provided sufficient leisure for the growth of civilization. But for the Nile, Egyptian civilization would not have developed. Therefore Egypt is called ‘The Gift of Nile’.

The early people settled into villages, which developed into cities and later City-States were formed. They were ruled by Kings in this pre-dynastic period. The inter City- State quarrels made way to the birth of Kingdoms. About 30 dynasties have ruled Egypt for more than 3000 years but none could survive for more than 6-7 generations.

The rule of dynasties can be divided into 3 parts:
The Period of Old Kingdom, the Period of Middle Kingdom and the Period of the New Kingdom. Old Kingdom is also known as the Period of Pyramids. The Pharaohs of this period were very strong. They had a good administrative system. There was a council of elders to advise the King, which was not binding on him.

Pharaohs appointed Vizirs, the Prime Ministers who headed the Administration, Justice, and Treasury. The Local officers maintained the records and the accounts. Middle Kingdom is known as the Period of Feudal Lords. During this period, Lords became more powerful than the Pharaohs. It led to many internal wars and Anarchy. During the new Kingdom, the Kings raised powerful armies and built a very strong Empire and conquered new territories and expanded the Empire.

Egypt had a well organised society. There were three strata of people. The Upper class included the Royal family, Priests, Nobles and Military Officers who led a life of comfort and luxury. The Middle class included Physicians, Scribes, Craftsmen, Merchants, and Farmers. Slaves formed the Lower class or the last strata of the society and lived a very hard and toiling life. It was an agrarian economy.

They built Canals and Shadoofs for efficient irrigation purpose. They redesigned the hoe and fixed it to the yoke of oxen and transformed the hoe culture into plough culture for better yield. They developed a variety of crafts and manufacturing. Brass, bronze, gold, and iron were the metals used for making tools, utensils, ornaments, and weapons. They had developed both internal and external trade. They had perfected the art of shipbuilding to navigate the seas and smaller boats and vessels to sail the rivers.

Collection of taxes on agriculturists, traders and craftsmen were introduced to augment the state’s income. Egyptians developed pictographic writing called Hieroglyphics. These signs represented both sounds and some complete words. Papyrus was used for writing. They had a fair knowledge of Medicine, Geometry, Calendars, Astronomy, and Mathematics.

The construction of huge pyramids and the Sphinx are fine examples of their outstanding technical knowledge and sound administrative ability. They had invented the Shadow clock to mark the time of the day. Their education was controlled by the State.

Question 2.
Describe the contributions of Mesopotamian civilization.
Answer:
Agriculture was the main occupation of the Mesopotamians followed by cattle rearing and dairy farming. To that end, they developed erection of bunds to lands and artificial irrigation. They gave to the world the knowhow about digging of canals, construction of dykes, embankments and storage basins to regulate water consumption and usage throughout the year. It is believed that the Shadoof was developed by them for artificial irrigation.

They had a barter system in the beginning, but later started using metal coins. Weaving, dyeing, woodworks, pottery, jewellery, and metallurgy were the important crafts. They exported wooden articles and fiber clothes and had trade relations with India and Egypt.

As stone was not available in Mesopotamia, we do not find sculpture and architecture as we find in Egypt. Most of the buildings were built with brick and mud and only very few of them have survived. King Nebuchadnezzar constructed a Palace with a variety of gardens on the roof known as the Hanging Garden of Babylon which was considered as one of the Seven wonders of the Ancient World.

Mesopotamians were excellent artisans and sculptors. They carved beautiful images of eagles and other animals. Student copybooks and a library of clay books of 4,000 years old were found at excavations. They used flat bricks for writing which was known as ‘cuneiform’ writing. They composed many myths, legends, and poems. Their Epic of Gilgamesh is a rich poetry.

They knew about the Planets and believed that Sun and Moon influenced the life of men. They had faith in Astrology which was based on Astronomy. They divided the year into 12 months with 354 days. They followed the lunar Calendar. Their hour had 60 minutes and a minute had 60 seconds. They had made good progress in the field of medicine. Their book ‘Matoria Medica’ mentions of550 medicines prepared from vegetables, minerals, and animal products. That book also gives details of various diseases and their symptoms.

Mesopotamians worshipped Nature along with innumerable Gods and Goddesses. They built Ziggurats – Temples with tall towers. The Temples were also centres of education. They had streamlined Central and Provincial administrations. Governors were appointed to look after the provincial administration. They had a horse borne postal system for communication.

The greatest contribution of the Mesopotamian civilization was the ‘Code of Hammurabi’. King Hammurabi was a great Conqueror and an able administrator. He collected all the existing laws, classified them, improved them, added new ones and codified all into one body of laws. It covered all aspects of human life and was a mixture of enlightened laws and barbarous punishments. It was an everlasting and monumental legal achievement of Hammurabi, which has made him immortal.

Question 3.
Describe the contributions of Chinese civilization.
Answer:
1. Art of painting:
Chinese had developed wonderful painting. They painted on silk cloth, tomb walls, pots and papers. They believed that tomb painting were means to protect the dead and help their souls to go to heaven.

2. Sculpture:
Chinese developed the art of casting bronze statues of animals and monsters. This art developed during Shangs and Chous. Buddhism influenced their sculpture and the statues of Bodhisatwa carved in stone are found in large numbers. The Terracotta army assembled in the tomb of the first Kin Emperor consists of life-size images of more than 8000 warriors and horses.

Chinese were massive builders. The Great Wall of China is one of their most impressive and everlasting architectural accomplishment. It was purely built for the ’ utilitarian purpose of protecting the country from Mongolian invasions. They also built Buddhist temples called Pagodas, important among them are the ‘Giant Wild Goose Pagoda’, ‘Jade Pagoda’, ‘Flask Pagoda’ and the ‘Temple of Sleeping Buddha’ outside Peking, the present Beijing.

3. Writing and Literature:
Chinese had developed the art of writing during Shang period. Chinese script was standardized during Chin Rulers. They have no alphabets and parts of speech. It consists of only characters which are more than 40,000. It started as pictograph and later they developed Characters or Logograms.

Chinese characters constitute the oldest continuously used systems of writing in the world. Their writing played an important role in cultural unification. Chinese script also influenced Japanese, Korean and Vietnamese scripts. It is written from top to bottom.

The invention of paper, silk, and ink for writing helped the growth of writing and literature. The practice of writing history was also popular in China. The Chinese literature comprised of prose, poetry, philosophy and history. During Han and Tong dynasties, Chinese poetry reached great heights. Chinese had developed Geography, Geometry, Arithmetic, Calendars, Astronomy and they could predict eclipses accurately.

The important inventions of the Chinese are the following. Silk, Tea, Ink, Brushes for painting and writing, Abacus, Acupuncture, Rudder, Gun powder, Glass, Pottery, Porcelain, Rockets, Umbrella, Seismograph, and Mariner Compass.

4. Philosophy and Religion:
Lao Tse, Confucius, and Mencius were three great Philosophers who influenced the religious ideas of Chinese to a great extent. Lao Tse’s philosophy is known. as Taoism. He preached non-violence, not to be conservative, to respect the wise, do one’s duty with sincerity and honesty, etc., The philosophy of Confucius is known as ‘Confucianism’. The principles of Confucius had a basis in common Chinese traditions and beliefs. He taught loyalty towards family, worship of ancestors, respect to elders and unity among the people of China.

Question 4.
Briefly explain the History of Ancient civilizations.
Answer:
Many inventions such as use of fire, rearing of animals for milk and meat, new weapons, tools, utensils, fishing nets, clay pots, discovery of weaving and building of huts and houses, new means and methods of transport, such as animals and carts etc. have brought revolutionary changes and given rise to new arts, crafts and occupations.

Most of the civilizations in the world developed on the banks of the rivers. The places where humans settled first were naturally those parts of the world where the soil was rich and water available for drinking and irrigation, wide and flat lands through which great rivers ran and had a warm climate. Humans appeared about 5.6 million years ago but started civilized life only 7000 years ago.

Around 6000 B.C.E humans made the most important discovery i.e. the ‘Discovery of the cultivation of land Agriculture’ which brought a great change in the way of their living. Agriculture bound humans to the soil assured them food throughout the year and fodder for their animals.

1. The quotation “Moving wheels made the Civilizations”:
Is noteworthy. The invention of moving wheel by humans brought major changes in the profession of potters, carpenters, blacksmiths, rope makers and transport system. It also increased the pace of growth of civilizations. Egypt, Mesopotamia, India, China, etc were the first sites of human settlements. In these regions, humans first formed groups to live together, Valleys of the rivers like the Nile, Euphrates, and Tigris, Indus, Huwang-Ho, and Yangtse-Sikiang, etc., have helped the great civilizations to flourish. Hence the river valleys are called the Cradles of Civilizations.

The factors that helped the growth of Civilizations are as follows:

  1. Deposition of fertile alluvial soil caused by the river floods.
  2. Continuous and uninterrupted supply of water for irrigation and domestic purposes.
  3. Favorable climate generally found on the river valleys.
  4. Plenty of food, fruits, and vegetables for the humans and fodder for their animals.
  5. River valleys helped fishing.
  6. They helped the growth of trade and communication by providing means of transport.

The above factors reduced the burden on the humans in wandering for food and the risk of life. They started to settle down at one place and formed groups and communities, which later evolved into villages, towns, and cities. They started to become civilized. The leisure gave them the opportunity to discover metals, make tools and weapons, start building their homes, etc.

The characteristics of a civilization are as given below:

  1. Group of people having a specific livelihood and specific settlement patterns.
  2. Group of people having a specific pattern of administration.
  3. Group of people having a specific social pattern and unique cultural traits.
  4. Humans during different ages invented various metals and learnt their uses.
  5. The growth of civilization necessitated the need for internal and external security.
  6. It gave rise to a complex administrative system with bureaucracy and accounting which necessitated writing.

All Chapter 1st PUC History Question Bank with Answers Karnataka Board

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All Subject 1st PUC Question Banks with Answers Karnataka Board

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